libgcc_s not installed in /lib?

Tadeus (Eus) Prastowo 0x657573 at googlemail.com
Sat Mar 5 17:09:43 PST 2011


Hi!

I use LFS Book development version SVN-20110218.
Everything goes well up to chapter 6.10 "Re-adjusting the Toolchain" in which

echo 'main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c -v -Wl,--verbose &> dummy.log

gives the following error from ld:
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/bin/ld:
cannot find -lgcc_s

find / -type f -name 'libgcc_s*' returns only: /tools/lib/libgcc_s.so.1

However, the SEARCH_DIRs of ld are only the following three:
/tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib
/usr/lib
/lib

Doing: ln -s /tools/lib/libgcc_s.* /lib fixes the problem and all
conditions stated in chapter 6.10 are fulfilled.

However, I am curios as to whether this is totally fine or not.
Therefore, I would like to hear your opinions. Specifically, I am
wondering why libgcc_s.so.1 is not installed in one of the search
paths of ld.

Below is the output of: echo 'main(){}' | gcc --verbose -Wl,--verbose
-x c -o /dev/null - 2>&1

Reading specs from /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/specs
COLLECT_GCC=gcc
COLLECT_LTO_WRAPPER=/tools/libexec/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/lto-wrapper
Target: i686-pc-linux-gnu
Configured with: ../gcc-4.5.2/configure --prefix=/tools
--with-local-prefix=/tools --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-shared
--enable-threads=posix --enable-__cxa_atexit --enable-languages=all
--disable-libstdcxx-pch --disable-multilib --disable-bootstrap
--disable-libgomp --without-ppl --without-cloog
Thread model: posix
gcc version 4.5.2 (GCC)
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-v' '-o' '/dev/null' '-mtune=generic' '-march=pentiumpro'
 /tools/libexec/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/cc1 -quiet -v -isystem
/usr/include - -quiet -dumpbase - -mtune=generic -march=pentiumpro
-auxbase - -version -o /tmp/ccLLDqmG.s
GNU C (GCC) version 4.5.2 (i686-pc-linux-gnu)
    compiled by GNU C version 4.5.2, GMP version 5.0.1, MPFR version
3.0.0, MPC version 0.8.2
GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=100 --param ggc-min-heapsize=131072
ignoring nonexistent directory
"/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/include"
#include "..." search starts here:
#include <...> search starts here:
 /usr/include
 /tools/include
 /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/include
 /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/include-fixed
End of search list.
GNU C (GCC) version 4.5.2 (i686-pc-linux-gnu)
    compiled by GNU C version 4.5.2, GMP version 5.0.1, MPFR version
3.0.0, MPC version 0.8.2
GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=100 --param ggc-min-heapsize=131072
Compiler executable checksum: b787de2bcf4635903a75f22008360ea6
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-v' '-o' '/dev/null' '-mtune=generic' '-march=pentiumpro'
 /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/bin/as
-V -Qy --32 -o /tmp/ccu7Q06b.o /tmp/ccLLDqmG.s
GNU assembler version 2.21 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) using BFD version (GNU
Binutils) 2.21
COMPILER_PATH=/tools/libexec/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/:/tools/libexec/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/:/tools/libexec/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/:/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/:/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/:/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/bin/
LIBRARY_PATH=/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/:/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/:/usr/lib/
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-v' '-o' '/dev/null' '-mtune=generic' '-march=pentiumpro'
 /tools/libexec/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/collect2 --eh-frame-hdr -m
elf_i386 -dynamic-linker /lib/ld-linux.so.2 -o /dev/null
/usr/lib/crt1.o /usr/lib/crti.o
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/crtbegin.o
-L/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2
-L/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib
--verbose /tmp/ccu7Q06b.o -lgcc --as-needed -lgcc_s --no-as-needed -lc
-lgcc --as-needed -lgcc_s --no-as-needed
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/crtend.o /usr/lib/crtn.o
GNU ld (GNU Binutils) 2.21
  Supported emulations:
   elf_i386
   i386linux
using internal linker script:
==================================================
/* Script for -z combreloc: combine and sort reloc sections */
OUTPUT_FORMAT("elf32-i386", "elf32-i386",
          "elf32-i386")
OUTPUT_ARCH(i386)
ENTRY(_start)
SEARCH_DIR("/tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib"); SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib");
SEARCH_DIR("/lib");
SECTIONS
{
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    KEEP (*(.init))
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  PROVIDE (__etext = .);
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  .eh_frame       : ONLY_IF_RO { KEEP (*(.eh_frame)) }
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  .eh_frame       : ONLY_IF_RW { KEEP (*(.eh_frame)) }
  .gcc_except_table   : ONLY_IF_RW { *(.gcc_except_table .gcc_except_table.*) }
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  .tdata      : { *(.tdata .tdata.* .gnu.linkonce.td.*) }
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  .preinit_array     :
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    PROVIDE_HIDDEN (__preinit_array_start = .);
    KEEP (*(.preinit_array))
    PROVIDE_HIDDEN (__preinit_array_end = .);
  }
  .init_array     :
  {
    PROVIDE_HIDDEN (__init_array_start = .);
    KEEP (*(SORT(.init_array.*)))
    KEEP (*(.init_array))
    PROVIDE_HIDDEN (__init_array_end = .);
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  .fini_array     :
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    PROVIDE_HIDDEN (__fini_array_start = .);
    KEEP (*(SORT(.fini_array.*)))
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    PROVIDE_HIDDEN (__fini_array_end = .);
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  .ctors          :
  {
    /* gcc uses crtbegin.o to find the start of
       the constructors, so we make sure it is
       first.  Because this is a wildcard, it
       doesn't matter if the user does not
       actually link against crtbegin.o; the
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       wildcard.  The wildcard also means that it
       doesn't matter which directory crtbegin.o
       is in.  */
    KEEP (*crtbegin.o(.ctors))
    KEEP (*crtbegin?.o(.ctors))
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       the crtend.o file until after the sorted ctors.
       The .ctor section from the crtend file contains the
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    KEEP (*(EXCLUDE_FILE (*crtend.o *crtend?.o ) .ctors))
    KEEP (*(SORT(.ctors.*)))
    KEEP (*(.ctors))
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  .dtors          :
  {
    KEEP (*crtbegin.o(.dtors))
    KEEP (*crtbegin?.o(.dtors))
    KEEP (*(EXCLUDE_FILE (*crtend.o *crtend?.o ) .dtors))
    KEEP (*(SORT(.dtors.*)))
    KEEP (*(.dtors))
  }
  .jcr            : { KEEP (*(.jcr)) }
  .data.rel.ro : { *(.data.rel.ro.local*
.gnu.linkonce.d.rel.ro.local.*) *(.data.rel.ro*
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  . = DATA_SEGMENT_RELRO_END (12, .);
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}


==================================================
attempt to open /usr/lib/crt1.o succeeded
/usr/lib/crt1.o
attempt to open /usr/lib/crti.o succeeded
/usr/lib/crti.o
attempt to open /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/crtbegin.o succeeded
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/crtbegin.o
attempt to open /tmp/ccu7Q06b.o succeeded
/tmp/ccu7Q06b.o
attempt to open /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/libgcc.so failed
attempt to open /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/libgcc.a succeeded
attempt to open /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/libgcc_s.so failed
attempt to open /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/libgcc_s.a failed
attempt to open
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/libgcc_s.so
failed
attempt to open
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/libgcc_s.a
failed
attempt to open /tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/libgcc_s.so failed
attempt to open /tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/libgcc_s.a failed
attempt to open /usr/lib/libgcc_s.so failed
attempt to open /usr/lib/libgcc_s.a failed
attempt to open /lib/libgcc_s.so failed
attempt to open /lib/libgcc_s.a failed
attempt to open /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/libc.so failed
attempt to open /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/libc.a failed
attempt to open
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/libc.so
failed
attempt to open
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/libc.a
failed
attempt to open /tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/libc.so failed
attempt to open /tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib/libc.a failed
attempt to open /usr/lib/libc.so succeeded
opened script file /usr/lib/libc.so
opened script file /usr/lib/libc.so
attempt to open /lib/libc.so.6 succeeded
/lib/libc.so.6
attempt to open /usr/lib/libc_nonshared.a succeeded
(/usr/lib/libc_nonshared.a)elf-init.oS
attempt to open /lib/ld-linux.so.2 succeeded
/lib/ld-linux.so.2
/tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/../../../../i686-pc-linux-gnu/bin/ld:
cannot find -lgcc_s
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status

And, below is the content of /tools/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.5.2/specs:
*asm:
%{v:-V} %{Qy:} %{!Qn:-Qy} %{n} %{T} %{Ym,*} %{Yd,*} %{Wa,*:%*} --32
%{!mno-sse2avx:%{mavx:-msse2avx}} %{msse2avx:%{!mavx:-msse2avx}}

*asm_debug:
%{!g0:%{gstabs*:--gstabs}%{!gstabs*:%{g*:--gdwarf2}}}
%{fdebug-prefix-map=*:--debug-prefix-map %*}

*asm_final:


*asm_options:
%{--target-help:%:print-asm-header()} %a %Y %{c:%W{o*}%{!o*:-o
%w%b%O}}%{!c:-o %d%w%u%O}

*invoke_as:
%{!fwpa:   %{fcompare-debug=*|fdump-final-insns=*:%:compare-debug-dump-opt()}
  %{!S:-o %|.s |
 as %(asm_options) %|.s %A }  }

*cpp:
%{posix:-D_POSIX_SOURCE} %{pthread:-D_REENTRANT} -isystem /usr/include

*cpp_options:
%(cpp_unique_options) %1 %{m*} %{std*&ansi&trigraphs} %{W*&pedantic*}
%{w} %{f*} %{g*:%{!g0:%{g*}
%{!fno-working-directory:-fworking-directory}}} %{O*} %{undef}
%{save-temps*:-fpch-preprocess}

*cpp_debug_options:
%{d*}

*cpp_unique_options:
%{C|CC:%{!E:%eGCC does not support -C or -CC without -E}} %{!Q:-quiet}
%{nostdinc*} %{C} %{CC} %{v} %{I*&F*} %{P} %I %{MD:-MD
%{!o:%b.d}%{o*:%.d%*}} %{MMD:-MMD %{!o:%b.d}%{o*:%.d%*}} %{M} %{MM}
%{MF*} %{MG} %{MP} %{MQ*} %{MT*}
%{!E:%{!M:%{!MM:%{!MT:%{!MQ:%{MD|MMD:%{o*:-MQ %*}}}}}}} %{remap}
%{g3|ggdb3|gstabs3|gcoff3|gxcoff3|gvms3:-dD} %{H} %C %{D*&U*&A*} %{i*}
%Z %i %{fmudflap:-D_MUDFLAP -include mf-runtime.h}
%{fmudflapth:-D_MUDFLAP -D_MUDFLAPTH -include mf-runtime.h}
%{E|M|MM:%W{o*}}

*trad_capable_cpp:
cc1 -E %{traditional|ftraditional|traditional-cpp:-traditional-cpp}

*cc1:
%(cc1_cpu) %{profile:-p}

*cc1_options:
%{pg:%{fomit-frame-pointer:%e-pg and -fomit-frame-pointer are
incompatible}} %1 %{!Q:-quiet} %{!dumpbase:-dumpbase %B} %{d*} %{m*}
%{a*} %{fcompare-debug-second:%:compare-debug-auxbase-opt(%b)}
%{!fcompare-debug-second:%{c|S:%{o*:-auxbase-strip %*}%{!o*:-auxbase
%b}}}%{!c:%{!S:-auxbase %b}}  %{g*} %{O*} %{W*&pedantic*} %{w}
%{std*&ansi&trigraphs} %{v:-version} %{pg:-p} %{p} %{f*} %{undef}
%{Qn:-fno-ident} %{--help:--help} %{--target-help:--target-help}
%{--help=*:--help=%(VALUE)} %{!fsyntax-only:%{S:%W{o*}%{!o*:-o %b.s}}}
%{fsyntax-only:-o %j} %{-param*} %{fmudflap|fmudflapth:-fno-builtin
-fno-merge-constants} %{coverage:-fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage}

*cc1plus:


*link_gcc_c_sequence:
%{static:--start-group} %G %L %{static:--end-group}%{!static:%G}

*link_ssp:
%{fstack-protector:}

*endfile:
%{ffast-math|funsafe-math-optimizations:crtfastmath.o%s}
%{mpc32:crtprec32.o%s}    %{mpc64:crtprec64.o%s}
%{mpc80:crtprec80.o%s}    %{shared|pie:crtendS.o%s;:crtend.o%s}
crtn.o%s

*link:
%{!static:--eh-frame-hdr} -m %(link_emulation) %{shared:-shared}
%{!shared:     %{!ibcs:       %{!static:
%{rdynamic:-export-dynamic}     %{!dynamic-linker:-dynamic-linker
%(dynamic_linker)}}     %{static:-static}}}

*lib:
%{pthread:-lpthread}    %{shared:-lc}    %{!shared:%{mieee-fp:-lieee}
%{profile:-lc_p}%{!profile:-lc}}

*mfwrap:
 %{static: %{fmudflap|fmudflapth:  --wrap=malloc --wrap=free
--wrap=calloc --wrap=realloc --wrap=mmap --wrap=munmap --wrap=alloca}
%{fmudflapth: --wrap=pthread_create}} %{fmudflap|fmudflapth:
--wrap=main}

*mflib:
%{fmudflap|fmudflapth: -export-dynamic}

*link_gomp:


*libgcc:
%{static|static-libgcc:-lgcc
-lgcc_eh}%{!static:%{!static-libgcc:%{!shared-libgcc:-lgcc --as-needed
-lgcc_s --no-as-needed}%{shared-libgcc:-lgcc_s%{!shared: -lgcc}}}}

*startfile:
%{!shared: %{pg|p|profile:gcrt1.o%s;pie:Scrt1.o%s;:crt1.o%s}}
crti.o%s %{static:crtbeginT.o%s;shared|pie:crtbeginS.o%s;:crtbegin.o%s}

*switches_need_spaces:
o

*cross_compile:
0

*version:
4.5.2

*multilib:
. ;

*multilib_defaults:


*multilib_extra:


*multilib_matches:


*multilib_exclusions:


*multilib_options:


*linker:
collect2

*linker_plugin_file:


*lto_wrapper:


*lto_gcc:


*lto_libgcc:


*link_libgcc:
%D

*md_exec_prefix:


*md_startfile_prefix:


*md_startfile_prefix_1:


*startfile_prefix_spec:
/usr/lib/

*sysroot_spec:
--sysroot=%R

*sysroot_suffix_spec:


*sysroot_hdrs_suffix_spec:


*cc1_cpu:
%{mcpu=*:-mtune=%* %n`-mcpu=' is deprecated. Use `-mtune=' or '-march=' instead.
} %<mcpu=* %{mintel-syntax:-masm=intel %n`-mintel-syntax' is
deprecated. Use `-masm=intel' instead.
} %{msse5:-mavx %n'-msse5' was removed.
} %{mno-intel-syntax:-masm=att %n`-mno-intel-syntax' is deprecated.
Use `-masm=att' instead.
}%{march=native:%<march=native %:local_cpu_detect(arch)
%{!mtune=*:%<mtune=native %:local_cpu_detect(tune)}}
%{mtune=native:%<mtune=native %:local_cpu_detect(tune)}

*link_emulation:
elf_i386

*dynamic_linker:
%{muclibc:%{mglibc:%e-mglibc and -muclibc used
together}/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0;:/lib/ld-linux.so.2}

*link_command:
%{!fsyntax-only:%{!c:%{!M:%{!MM:%{!E:%{!S:    %(linker)
%{fuse-linker-plugin:     -plugin %(linker_plugin_file)
-plugin-opt=%(lto_wrapper)     -plugin-opt=%(lto_gcc)
%{static|static-libgcc:-plugin-opt=-pass-through=%(lto_libgcc)}
%{static:-plugin-opt=-pass-through=-lc}        %{O*:-plugin-opt=-O%*}
   %{w:-plugin-opt=-w}     %{f*:-plugin-opt=-f%*}
%{m*:-plugin-opt=-m%*}     %{v:-plugin-opt=-v}     }     %{flto}
%{fwhopr} %l %{pie:-pie} %X %{o*} %{A} %{d} %{e*} %{m} %{N} %{n} %{r}
  %{s} %{t} %{u*} %{x} %{z} %{Z}
%{!A:%{!nostdlib:%{!nostartfiles:%S}}}    %{static:} %{L*} %(mfwrap)
%(link_libgcc) %o
%{fopenmp|ftree-parallelize-loops=*:%:include(libgomp.spec)%(link_gomp)}
%(mflib)    %{fprofile-arcs|fprofile-generate*|coverage:-lgcov}
%{!nostdlib:%{!nodefaultlibs:%(link_ssp) %(link_gcc_c_sequence)}}
%{!A:%{!nostdlib:%{!nostartfiles:%E}}} %{T*} }}}}}}

Thank you.

--
Best regards,
Eus (FSF member #4445)

In this digital era, where computing technology is pervasive, your
freedom depends on the software controlling those computing devices.

Join free software movement today! It is free as in freedom, not as in
free beer!

Join: http://www.fsf.org/



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