Erika Pacholleck pchllck at
Thu Oct 18 07:49:07 PDT 2001

[18.10.01 12:59 +0300] Markus Bengts <-- :
> ls shows '?' instead of native characters in filenames.
> I want to be able to use Finnish characters in filenames. This problem is 
> not kernel-related because it appears also when I boot the pre-compiled 
> redhat kernel and chroot to the lfs-partition. 
> Now when I chroot to the lfs-partition:
> # touch åäö
> # ls
> ???
> Now the file åäö does exist. It only looks like ??? in the ls output. So 
> there is no problem now with:
> # rm åäö
> The Finnish-HOWTO says that many programs have to be compiled 8-bit-clean. 
> I greped for the string 8-bit-clean in the fileutils source but did not 
> figure out how to enable ls to show å, ä and ö.

Responsible for that is the the LC_CTYPE (character types of your
country). To do that forever put a line
export LC_CTYPE=fi_< 2 BIG letters if you need >.ISO-8859-1 (I guess)

You can find a lot of the exact definitions in the file locale.alias
(simple text file in /usr/lib/ or /usr/share somewhere under locale)

To do that only for some more moments you can do
export LC_CTYPE=... on the commandline
In the chroot during the building of an lfs system it is better not to
have any LC_ value set to something other than C (which means default
and only uses the old 127 US ones without any special characters) - most
configure/make first check whether some nls-related stuff is set and go
around it (so no problem) but I myself like to be on the safe side.

Hope this helps.
Erika Pacholleck <pchllck at> @@ -18,9 +18,12 @@ -p+pa -h+ho -c+ec
Unsubscribe: send email to listar at
and put 'unsubscribe lfs-support' in the subject header of the message

More information about the lfs-support mailing list