r168 - in trunk/BOOK: . chapter08

archaic at linuxfromscratch.org archaic at linuxfromscratch.org
Sat Feb 12 08:16:44 PST 2005


Author: archaic
Date: 2005-02-12 09:16:44 -0700 (Sat, 12 Feb 2005)
New Revision: 168

Added:
   trunk/BOOK/chapter07/
   trunk/BOOK/chapter08/
   trunk/BOOK/chapter08/chapter08.xml
   trunk/BOOK/chapter08/fstab.xml
   trunk/BOOK/chapter08/grub.xml
   trunk/BOOK/chapter08/introduction.xml
   trunk/BOOK/chapter08/kernel.xml
Modified:
   trunk/BOOK/index.xml
Log:
Added a temporary page to get the xml to validate.

Added: trunk/BOOK/chapter08/chapter08.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/chapter08/chapter08.xml	2005-02-12 02:50:38 UTC (rev 167)
+++ trunk/BOOK/chapter08/chapter08.xml	2005-02-12 16:16:44 UTC (rev 168)
@@ -0,0 +1,17 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
+<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN" "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
+  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
+  %general-entities;
+]>
+<chapter id="chapter-bootable" xreflabel="Chapter 8">
+<?dbhtml dir="chapter08"?>
+<title>Making the HLFS System Bootable</title>
+<?dbhtml filename="chapter08.html"?>
+
+<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude" href="introduction.xml"/>
+<!--
+<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude" href="fstab.xml"/>
+<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude" href="kernel.xml"/>
+<xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude" href="grub.xml"/>
+-->
+</chapter>

Added: trunk/BOOK/chapter08/fstab.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/chapter08/fstab.xml	2005-02-12 02:50:38 UTC (rev 167)
+++ trunk/BOOK/chapter08/fstab.xml	2005-02-12 16:16:44 UTC (rev 168)
@@ -0,0 +1,67 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
+<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN" "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
+  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
+  %general-entities;
+]>
+<sect1 id="ch-bootable-fstab">
+<title>Creating the /etc/fstab File</title>
+<?dbhtml filename="fstab.html"?>
+
+<indexterm zone="ch-bootable-fstab"><primary sortas="e-/etc/fstab">/etc/fstab</primary></indexterm>
+
+<para>The <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> file is used by some
+programs to determine where file systems are to be mounted by default,
+which must be checked, and in which order. Create a new file systems
+table like this:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>cat > /etc/fstab << "EOF"
+<literal># Begin /etc/fstab
+
+# file system  mount-point  type   options         dump  fsck
+#                                                        order
+
+/dev/<replaceable>[xxx]</replaceable>     /            <replaceable>[fff]</replaceable>  defaults        1     1
+/dev/<replaceable>[yyy]</replaceable>     swap         swap   pri=1           0     0
+proc           /proc        proc   defaults        0     0
+sysfs          /sys         sysfs  defaults        0     0
+devpts         /dev/pts     devpts gid=4,mode=620  0     0
+shm            /dev/shm     tmpfs  defaults        0     0
+# End /etc/fstab</literal>
+EOF</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>Replace <replaceable>[xxx]</replaceable>,
+<replaceable>[yyy]</replaceable>, and <replaceable>[fff]</replaceable>
+with the values appropriate for the system, for example, <filename
+class="partition">hda2</filename>, <filename
+class="partition">hda5</filename>, and <systemitem
+class="filesystem">ext2</systemitem>. For details on the six
+fields in this file, see <command>man 5 fstab</command>.</para>
+
+<para>When using a journalling file system, the <parameter>1
+1</parameter> at the end of the line should be replaced with
+<parameter>0 0</parameter> because such a partition does not need to
+be dumped or checked.</para>
+
+<para>The <filename class="directory">/dev/shm</filename> mount point
+for <systemitem class="filesystem">tmpfs</systemitem> is included to
+allow enabling POSIX-shared memory. The kernel must have the required
+support built into it for this to work (more about this is in the next
+section). Please note that very little software currently uses
+POSIX-shared memory.  Therefore, consider the <filename
+class="directory">/dev/shm</filename> mount point optional. For more
+information, see
+<filename>Documentation/filesystems/tmpfs.txt</filename> in the kernel
+source tree.</para>
+
+<para>There are other lines which may be added to the
+<filename>/etc/fstab</filename> file. One example is a line for USB
+devices:</para>
+
+<screen>usbfs        /proc/bus/usb usbfs   devgid=14,devmode=0660 0 0 </screen>
+
+<para>This option will only work if <quote>Support for Host-side
+USB</quote> and <quote>USB device filesystem</quote> are compiled into
+the kernel (not as a module).</para>
+
+</sect1>
+

Added: trunk/BOOK/chapter08/grub.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/chapter08/grub.xml	2005-02-12 02:50:38 UTC (rev 167)
+++ trunk/BOOK/chapter08/grub.xml	2005-02-12 16:16:44 UTC (rev 168)
@@ -0,0 +1,138 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
+<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN" "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
+  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
+  %general-entities;
+]>
+<sect1 id="ch-bootable-grub">
+<title>Making the LFS System Bootable</title>
+<?dbhtml filename="grub.html"?>
+
+<indexterm zone="ch-bootable-grub">
+<primary sortas="a-Grub">Grub</primary>
+<secondary>configuring</secondary></indexterm>
+
+<para>Your shiny new LFS system is almost complete. One of the last
+things to do is to ensure that the system can be properly booted. The
+instructions below apply only to computers of IA-32 architecture,
+meaning mainstream PCs. Information on <quote>boot loading</quote> for
+other architectures should be available in the usual resource-specific
+locations for those architectures.</para>
+
+<para>Boot loading can be a complex area, so a few cautionary
+words are in order. Be familiar with the current boot loader and any other
+operating systems present on the hard drive(s) that need to be
+bootable. Make sure that an emergency boot disk is ready to
+<quote>rescue</quote> the computer if the computer becomes
+unusable (un-bootable).</para>
+
+<para>Earlier, we compiled and installed the Grub boot loader software
+in preparation for this step. The procedure involves writing some
+special Grub files to specific locations on the hard drive. We highly
+recommend creating a Grub boot floppy diskette as a backup. Insert a
+blank floppy diskette and run the following commands:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>dd if=/boot/grub/stage1 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1
+dd if=/boot/grub/stage2 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 seek=1</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>Remove the diskette and store it somewhere safe. Now, run the
+<command>grub</command> shell:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>grub</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>Grub uses its own naming structure for drives and partitions in
+the form of <emphasis>(hdn,m)</emphasis>, where <emphasis>n</emphasis>
+is the hard drive number and <emphasis>m</emphasis> is the partition
+number, both starting from zero. For example, partition <filename
+class="partition">hda1</filename> is <emphasis>(hd0,0)</emphasis> to
+Grub and <filename class="partition">hdb3</filename> is
+<emphasis>(hd1,2)</emphasis>. In contrast to Linux, Grub does not
+consider CD-ROM drives to be hard drives. For example, if using a CD
+on <filename class="partition">hdb</filename> and a second hard drive
+on <filename class="partition">hdc</filename>, that second hard drive
+would still be <emphasis>(hd1)</emphasis>.</para>
+
+<para>Using the above information, determine the appropriate
+designator for the root partition (or boot partition, if a separate
+one is used). For the following example, it is assumed that the root
+(or separate boot) partition is <filename
+class="partition">hda4</filename>.</para>
+
+<para>Tell Grub where to search for its
+<filename>stage{1,2}</filename> files. The Tab key can be used
+everywhere to make Grub show the alternatives:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>root (hd0,3)</userinput></screen>
+
+<beginpage/>
+<warning><para>The following command will overwrite the current boot
+loader. Do not run the command if this is not desired, for example, if
+using a third party boot manager to manage the Master Boot Record
+(MBR). In this scenario, it would make more sense to install
+Grub into the <quote>boot sector</quote> of the LFS partition. In this
+case, this next command would become <userinput>setup
+(hd0,3)</userinput>.</para></warning>
+
+<para>Tell Grub to install itself into the MBR of
+<filename class="partition">hda</filename>:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>setup (hd0)</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>If all went well, Grub will have reported finding its files in
+<filename class="directory">/boot/grub</filename>. That's all there is
+to it. Quit the <command>grub</command> shell:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>quit</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>Create a <quote>menu list</quote> file defining Grub's boot menu:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>cat > /boot/grub/menu.lst << "EOF"
+<literal># Begin /boot/grub/menu.lst
+
+# By default boot the first menu entry.
+default 0
+
+# Allow 30 seconds before booting the default.
+timeout 30
+
+# Use prettier colors.
+color green/black light-green/black
+
+# The first entry is for LFS.
+title LFS &version;
+root (hd0,3)
+kernel /boot/lfskernel-&linux-version; root=/dev/hda4</literal>
+EOF</userinput></screen>
+
+<beginpage/>
+<para>Add an entry for the host distribution if desired. It might look
+like this:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>cat >> /boot/grub/menu.lst << "EOF"
+<literal>title Red Hat
+root (hd0,2)
+kernel /boot/kernel-2.4.20 root=/dev/hda3
+initrd /boot/initrd-2.4.20</literal>
+EOF</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>If dual-booting Windows, the following entry will allow
+booting it:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>cat >> /boot/grub/menu.lst << "EOF"
+<literal>title Windows
+rootnoverify (hd0,0)
+chainloader +1</literal>
+EOF</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>If <command>info grub</command> does not provide all necessary material, additional
+information regarding Grub is located on its website at:
+<ulink url="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/"/>.</para>
+
+<para>The FHS stipulates that Grub's <filename>menu.lst</filename> file should be symlinked to
+<filename class="symlink">/etc/grub/menu.lst</filename>.  To satisfy this requirement, issue the 
+following command:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>mkdir /etc/grub &&
+ln -s /boot/grub/menu.lst /etc/grub</userinput></screen>
+
+</sect1>
+

Added: trunk/BOOK/chapter08/introduction.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/chapter08/introduction.xml	2005-02-12 02:50:38 UTC (rev 167)
+++ trunk/BOOK/chapter08/introduction.xml	2005-02-12 16:16:44 UTC (rev 168)
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
+<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN" "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
+  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
+  %general-entities;
+]>
+<sect1 id="ch-bootable-introduction">
+<title>Introduction</title>
+<?dbhtml filename="introduction.html"?>
+
+<para>It is time to make the HLFS system bootable. This chapter discusses
+creating an <filename>fstab</filename> file, building a kernel for the new LFS
+system, and installing the Grub boot loader so that the LFS system can be
+selected for booting at startup.</para>
+
+</sect1>
+

Added: trunk/BOOK/chapter08/kernel.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/chapter08/kernel.xml	2005-02-12 02:50:38 UTC (rev 167)
+++ trunk/BOOK/chapter08/kernel.xml	2005-02-12 16:16:44 UTC (rev 168)
@@ -0,0 +1,249 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
+<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN" "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
+  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
+  %general-entities;
+]>
+<sect1 id="ch-bootable-kernel" role="wrap">
+<title>Linux-&linux-version;</title>
+<?dbhtml filename="kernel.html"?>
+
+<indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel"><primary sortas="a-Linux">Linux</primary></indexterm>
+
+<sect2 role="package"><title/>
+<para>The Linux package contains the kernel and the header files.</para>
+
+<segmentedlist>
+<segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
+<segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
+<seglistitem><seg>4.20 SBU</seg>
+<seg>181 MB</seg></seglistitem>
+</segmentedlist>
+
+<segmentedlist>
+<segtitle>Linux installation depends on</segtitle>
+<seglistitem><seg>Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Findutils,
+GCC, Glibc, Grep, Gzip, Make, Modutils, Perl, and Sed</seg></seglistitem>
+</segmentedlist>
+</sect2>
+
+<sect2 role="installation">
+<title>Installation of the kernel</title>
+
+<para>Building the kernel involves a few steps—configuration,
+compilation, and installation. Read the <filename>README</filename>
+file in the kernel source tree for alternate methods to the way this
+book configures the kernel.</para>
+
+<para>Kernel version 2.6.10 has a security vulnerability that will allow user
+processes to gain root privledges upon loading of a kernel module.  See:
+<ulink url="http://www.uwsg.iu.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0412.3/0679.html"/> for more information.  The following patch fixes this problem:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../linux-&linux-version;-security_fix-1.patch</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>Prepare for compilation by running the following command:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>make mrproper</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>This ensures that the kernel tree is absolutely clean. The
+kernel team recommends that this command be issued prior to each
+kernel compilation. Do not rely on the source tree being clean after
+un-tarring.</para>
+
+<para>Also, ensure that the kernel does not attempt to pass
+hotplugging events to userspace until userspace specifies that it is
+ready:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>sed -i 's@/sbin/hotplug@/bin/true@' kernel/kmod.c</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>If, in <xref linkend="ch-scripts-console" role=","/> it was decided to
+compile the keymap into the kernel, issue the command below:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>loadkeys -m /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/<replaceable>[path to  keymap]</replaceable> > \
+    drivers/char/defkeymap.c</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>For example, if using a Dutch keyboard, use
+<phrase
+condition="html"><filename>/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/nl.map.gz</filename></phrase><phrase
+condition="pdf"><filename>/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/i386/
+qwerty/nl.map.gz</filename></phrase>.</para>
+
+<para>Configure the kernel via a menu-driven interface:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>make menuconfig</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>Alternatively, <command>make oldconfig</command> may be more appropriate in some
+situations. See the <filename>README</filename> file for more
+information.</para>
+
+<note><para>When configuring the kernel, be sure to enable the
+<quote>Support for hot-pluggable devices</quote> option under the
+<quote>General Setup</quote> menu. This enables hotplug events that
+are used by <command>udev</command> to populate the <filename
+class="directory">/dev</filename> directory with device
+nodes.</para></note>
+
+<para>If desired, skip kernel configuration by copying the kernel
+config file, <filename>.config</filename>, from the host system
+(assuming it is available) to the unpacked <filename
+class="directory">linux-&linux-version;</filename> directory. However,
+we do not recommend this option. It is often better to explore all the
+configuration menus and create the kernel configuration from
+scratch.</para>
+
+<para>For POSIX-shared memory support, ensure that the kernel config
+option <quote>Virtual memory file system support</quote> is enabled.
+It resides within the <quote>File systems</quote> menu and is normally
+enabled by default.</para>
+
+<para>LFS bootscripts make the assumption that either both
+<quote>Support for Host-side USB</quote> and <quote>USB device
+filesystem</quote> have been compiled directly into the kernel, or
+that neither is compiled at all.  Bootscripts will not work properly
+if it is a module (usbcore.ko).</para>
+
+<note><para>NPTL requires the kernel to be compiled with GCC 3.x, in
+this case &gcc-version;. Compiling with 2.95.x is known to cause failures in
+the glibc test suite, so it is not recommended to compile the kernel
+with gcc 2.95.x.</para></note>
+
+<para>Compile the kernel image and modules:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>make</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>If using kernel modules, an
+<filename>/etc/modprobe.conf</filename> file may be needed.
+Information pertaining to modules and kernel configuration is
+located in the kernel documentation in the <filename
+class="directory">linux-&linux-version;/Documentation</filename>
+directory. The <emphasis>modprobe.conf</emphasis> man page may also be
+of interest.</para>
+
+<para>Be very careful when reading other documentation because it
+usually applies to 2.4.x kernels only. As far as we know, kernel
+configuration issues specific to Hotplug and Udev are not documented.
+The problem is that Udev will create a device node only if Hotplug or
+a user-written script inserts the corresponding module into the
+kernel, and not all modules are detectable by Hotplug. Note that
+statements like the one below in the
+<filename>/etc/modprobe.conf</filename> file do not work with
+Udev:</para>
+
+<para><screen>alias char-major-XXX some-module</screen></para>
+
+<para>Because of the complications with Hotplug, Udev, and modules, we
+strongly recommend starting with a completely non-modular kernel
+configuration, especially if this is the first time using Udev.</para>
+
+<para>Install the modules, if the kernel configuration uses them:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>make modules_install</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>If there are many modules and very little space, consider
+stripping and compressing the modules. For most users, such
+compression is not worth the time, but if the system is pressed for
+space, see <ulink
+url="http://www.linux-mips.org/archives/linux-mips/2002-04/msg00031.html"/>.</para>
+
+<para>After kernel compilation is complete, additional steps are
+required to complete the installation. Some files need to be copied to
+the <filename class="directory">/boot</filename> directory.</para>
+
+<para>The path to the kernel image may vary depending on the platform
+being used. Issue the following command to install the kernel:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/lfskernel-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
+
+<para><filename>System.map</filename> is a symbol file for the kernel.
+It maps the function entry points of every function in the kernel API,
+as well as the addresses of the kernel data structures for the running
+kernel. Issue the following command to install the map file:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>cp System.map /boot/System.map-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>The kernel configuration file <filename>.config</filename>
+produced by the <command>make menuconfig</command> step
+above contains all the configuration selections for the kernel
+that was just compiled. It is a good idea to keep this file for future
+reference:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>cp .config /boot/config-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
+
+<para>It is important to note that the files in the kernel source
+directory are not owned by <emphasis>root</emphasis>. Whenever a
+package is unpacked as user <emphasis>root</emphasis> (like we did
+inside chroot), the files have the user and group IDs of whatever
+they were on the packager's computer. This is usually not a problem
+for any other package to be installed because the source tree is
+removed after the installation. However, the Linux source tree is
+often retained for a long time.  Because of this, there is a chance
+that whatever user ID the packager used will be assigned to somebody
+on the machine. That person would then have write access to the kernel
+source.</para>
+
+<para>If the kernel source tree is going to be retained, run
+<command>chown -R 0:0</command> on the <filename
+class="directory">linux-&linux-version;</filename> directory to ensure
+all files are owned by user <emphasis>root</emphasis>.</para>
+
+<warning><para>Some kernel documentation recommends creating a symlink from
+<filename class="symlink">/usr/src/linux</filename> pointing to the kernel
+source directory.  This is specific to kernels prior to the 2.6 series and
+<emphasis>must not</emphasis> be created on an LFS system as it can cause
+problems for packages you may wish to build once your base LFS system is
+complete.</para></warning>
+
+</sect2>
+
+
+<sect2 id="contents-kernel" role="content"><title>Contents of Linux</title>
+
+<segmentedlist>
+<segtitle>Installed files</segtitle>
+<seglistitem><seg>kernel, kernel headers,
+and System.map</seg></seglistitem>
+</segmentedlist>
+
+<variablelist><bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
+<?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
+
+<varlistentry id="kernel">
+<term><filename>kernel</filename></term>
+<listitem>
+<para>The engine of the Linux system. When turning on the computer,
+the kernel is the first part of the operating system that gets loaded.
+It detects and initializes all components of the computer's hardware,
+then makes these components available as a tree of files to the
+software and turns a single CPU into a multitasking machine capable
+of running scores of programs seemingly at the same time.</para>
+<indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel kernel"><primary sortas="b-kernel">kernel</primary></indexterm>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry id="kernel-headers">
+<term><filename>kernel headers</filename></term>
+<listitem>
+<para>Defines the interface to the services that the kernel provides.
+The headers in the system's <filename
+class="directory">include</filename> directory should
+<emphasis>always</emphasis> be the ones against which Glibc was
+compiled and therefore, should <emphasis>not</emphasis> be replaced
+when upgrading the kernel.</para>
+<indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel kernel-headers"><primary sortas="e-kernel-headers">kernel headers</primary></indexterm>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry id="System.map">
+<term><filename>System.map</filename></term>
+<listitem>
+<para>A list of addresses and symbols; it maps the entry points and
+addresses of all the functions and data structures in the
+kernel</para>
+<indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel System.map"><primary sortas="e-/boot/System.map">/boot/System.map</primary></indexterm>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+</variablelist>
+
+</sect2>
+
+</sect1>
+

Modified: trunk/BOOK/index.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/index.xml	2005-02-12 02:50:38 UTC (rev 167)
+++ trunk/BOOK/index.xml	2005-02-12 16:16:44 UTC (rev 168)
@@ -29,7 +29,9 @@
 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude" href="chapter06/chapter06.xml"/>
 <!--
 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude" href="chapter07/chapter07.xml"/>
+-->
 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude" href="chapter08/chapter08.xml"/>
+<!--
 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude" href="chapter09/chapter09.xml"/>
 -->
 </part>




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