Casual technical question about /etc/services

Dagmar d'Surreal dagmar.wants at
Thu Mar 25 10:46:05 PST 2004

On Thu, 2004-03-25 at 09:46, ken_i_m at wrote:
> On Tue, Mar 23, 2004 at 06:49:54PM -0600, Dagmar d'Surreal (dagmar.wants at wrote:
> > Now, I've never seen something that could look up states on what amounts
> > to a stateless connection, and nearly all the entries in /etc/services
> > have them doubled up like this.  Does anyone know _why_ unused protocols
> > are listed like this?
> I think it is just historical practice at IANA.
> While UDP (et al) are stateless, iptables does do connection tracking for 
> such traffic. (But then I think you knew that and thus this does not answer 
> your question.)

Actually, I've just been assuming that because it "just works" over
here, but I'm still in the dark about one thing... Is it /necessary/ to
have the state matching module invoked on the OUTPUT chain in a manner
that causes it to "become aware of" the outgoing UDP packets so that it
can match ESTABLISHED,RELATED for the return packets, or it this just a
fixed overhead "cost" on all traffic from loading the state matching
module?  I haven't seen this issue explicitly documented yet, and I've
been looking.
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