netfilter firewalling problems and solutions
dagmar.wants at nospam.com
Thu Feb 19 09:29:33 PST 2004
On Wed, 2004-02-18 at 12:39, Tarek W. wrote:
> On Tue, 2004-02-17 at 19:09, Dagmar d'Surreal wrote: [snipped]
> > Okay, I'm going to take the problems I know about and solve them one at
> > a time, with explanations as to why... Sorry for the delay in posting
> > this... (note that there will be a distinct lack of code in this email,
> > see previous email)
> > #1. Netfilter needs to implement a deny-by-default policy, but currently
> > no hook exists in the init.d scripts.
> > Seeing as how this is atomically tied to the initialization of the
> > network, I suspect the best place for this is simply going to be by
> > patching the init.d/network script to execute the seven or so lines it
> > takes to set the default policy to deny, to dump all rules and wipe all
> > chains (in that order) before going on to initialize any interfaces.
> > (The same thing should also be done when bringing down the interfaces).
> > This *would* be a problem for service daemons, since we'll need to have
> > rules for them, but when the interfaces are down, many of them crash
> > and/or die the next time they look at their sockets, so it's not as if
> > doing an init.d/network stop && init.d/network start is as trouble-free
> > as it would first appear. (People who do this by using telinit to
> > change to runlevel 2, and back again will not have this problem, which
> > is the cleanest way to do that anyway). The only inobvious thing here
> > is that at this time we should also (on multiple interface boxen) build
> > a chain for each interface for INPUT, FORWARD, and OUTPUT for the sake
> > of optimizing filter flow. (I should probably break this last bit out
> > into it's own justification bullet-point)
> have a single ruleset active at all time:
> a) allow initiating outgoing connections (allow NEW out and
> ESTABLISHED,RELATED in)
> b) turning off forwarding (ip_forward and FORWARD)
Good luck using a firewall without any forwarding. Such a machine is
generally called a proxy.
> > #2. We may have interfaces which need to be initialized using DHCP and a
> > default drop policy will prevent this from happening (although there are
> > circumstances with older kernels in which this wouldn't actually happen
> > with some DHCP implementations).
> > Well, since I scribbled together the service/dhclient script in about
> > two minutes and we know the interface name at that time, there's no
> > reason we can't add a hook into service/dhclient to add the two allow
> > rules necessary to facilitate DHCP requests and responses, tied to that
> > interface. Since we'll have already added our chains in
> > init.d/network, the rules can be dropped into the proper chain. The
> > script should also flush and destroy the custom chains after a dhclient
> > -r for network stop. (*1)
> a script would definitely work unless the dhcpd can force address
> changes, can it?! I forget...
I wasn't talking about a dhcpd.
> several issues spring to mind:
> a) should we enforce a trusted dhcpd concept (per ip or per mac)?!
Read the RFC on DHCP and you'll see why not.
> a1) if we do, why not have the rules in place all the time
Because if you don't remove them when you bring down an
interface/service, you can't cleanly *add* them when you add an
interface/service without risking duplicating the rules.
> [global] let's keep the discussion of overhead for a later date, I know
> we can minimize the overhead no matter what setup we have
> > #3. Handling service daemons is slightly more complex in that each is
> > likely to need a few rules of it's own.
> > While it might seem more convenient to lob all of these rules into one
> > script so they are all in the same place, their existence is atomically
> > tied to the active presence of a service daemon. For this reason we're
> > better off putting rules to allow each activity into the init.d script
> > for that daemon. Starting them at this time means that all our IP
> > addresses should be available (and identifiable) allowing us to be more
> > specific in our rules. It doesn't appear that we will run into trouble
> > with windows of opportunity since our default policies will still be
> > DROP from before the interfaces are brought up.
> I say, when the services r installed, include a firewall module for that
> service. activate (-j service_module in relevant chains) when the daemon
> is run through the sysvinit script
So you want a chain jump just for each service? Seems like extra steps
> > #4. Admins may use the kill command to stop daemons, or they may die,
> > and be started (quite properly) by invoking init.d/whateverservice
> > start, while firewalling rules are already present to allow their
> > traffic, duplicating existing firewalling rules.
> > Since there is no case in which the daemon should be running before
> > the init.d/whateverservice start script is invoked, until we start
> > adding surefire checks into these to avoid starting the same service
> > when it's already running, the simplest (and probably best) solution to
> > this is to run a set of rule deletions for that service prior to adding
> > the allow rules for it.
> indeed, with a proper design, should be a rule or two, while keeping the
> module in memory (will explain the concept of module at a later date,
> for now, just think of it as a bunch of iptables rules that r not
> visited by any packets unless it is activated by -j(umping) to the
> module's user-defined chain)
So how is this any different from a _chain_?
> > #5. Something may have broken and netfilter may not currently be
> > available for the kernel on boot-up (administrator error, filesystem
> > corruption, malicious user, etc), leaving the possibility that services
> > may start without firewall rules to limit their access.
> > This is a pretty serious issue. For this reason, we should probably
> > be checking the exit status of all rule insert/appends (although not for
> > any rule deletions or flushes, since these can exit with non-zero status
> > without actually indicating a show-stopper) and bail with exit status 1
> > if an error occurs. Lack of in-kernel firewalling (even for a
> > particular type of traffic, for example, if someone oopses and forgets
> > to add TCP support to netfilter) when the configuration expects
> > netfilter to be available should be considered a show-stopper and
> > require immediate administrative intervention ...however the machine
> > should not _stop_ booting entirely, but continue so that the
> > administrator can login to a console to fix things.
> very nice idea... we could label an interface as administrative if
> existent, so that the admin can login remotely, and do not bring up any
> other interfaces if the firewall script fails
No. That would be a contextual fallacy waiting to happen. If
firewalling is broken, there's a near-certainty that running a login
service will wind up allowing access to it from _anywhere_ instead of
the restricted list of source IPs that firewalling would be allowing.
> > #6. Even though a service daemon may be chrooted, it could still be
> > compromised and the uid used to make connections to other machines on
> > our network or on other networks.
> > Thankfully netfilter has a facility that allows it to see which
> > uid/gid is tied to traffic on the local machine. We can use this to our
> > advantage in the case of things like bind, where we can not only add
> > allow rules to let it query external nameservers, but limit it so that
> > it _only_ be used to talk to external nameservers. This is going to
> > require a little more complexity than some people are used to, but is
> > good stuff for implementing mandatory controls. If the default policy
> > is to DROP packets, then using "--uid-owner named" when we add the allow
> > rule will prevent say, squid's role account from being used to exploit
> > remote nameservers either externally or internally on our network
> > without a complete root compromise. Obversely, a nameserver making
> > queries to the internet and serving queries to the intranet might not
> > have any reason whatsoever to be initiating nameservice queries to
> > anything on the intranet. This specific a rule can also be applied to
> > the localhost interface to (for example) restrict service daemons
> > ability to access other service daemons (again, squid would have no
> > business talking to portmap, but could be allowed to make nameservice
> > queries on the localhost interface). -m owner should be used whenever
> > we can do so cleanly. (...although this seems really anal-retentive, it
> > still appears to add value to the configuration. Don't think these
> > kinds of exploits don't happen. I've seen all of this in the past year
> > at least once.)
> again, with the concept of modules, all users (as opposed to the people
> writing the book) will have a very simple procedure to follow
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