The Dark Ages of Printing

Ulrich Fahrenberg uli at math.auc.dk
Tue Jul 1 13:14:19 PDT 2003


Sorry to open yet another thread on The Printing Issue, but I have
lost track.

My new version of the Printing Minority Report didn't appear on
hints.lfs yet, giving me the opportunity to do some adjustments. Most
notably, gv now works with my "dumb" lpr script, and I have decided
to change the name to PrintingFromScratch.

Just so that we all know what we are talking about when refering to
the Printing Minority Report, I have attached the (much shortened
compared to the original) hint here.

About the one-document-for-all-printing-needs suggestion: I vote
against it; I'm much more into one-document-for-one-specific-need.

And to the Dark Ages: For me, hell consists of graphical configuration
utilities. My very first Linux was RedHat 5, which had printtool, a
graphical printer configuration utility. And I never managed to
configure my printer, as I never managed to get printtool to start,
because it had too few colors to assign! In my worst nightmares I
still dream of printtool:

	[uli at host:~ ] printtool: Not enough colors available. Exiting.

uli

-- 
Uli Fahrenberg -- http://www.math.auc.dk/~uli


-------------- next part --------------
TITLE:		Printing From Scratch

LFS VERSION:	anything with a kernel >=2.2

AUTHOR:		Uli Fahrenberg <uli at math dot auc dot dk>

SYNOPSIS:
	A very simplistic, yet usable printing setup. Spooler-less. Doesn't
	get more simple than this.

HINT:

Setting up a Linux box for printing is very easy, much contrary to common
belief. If you have simple needs: a printer which is connected to your
parallel port, on which you want to print stuff; and that's about it: then
there is a simple solution. If you want to share your printer between several
computers or anything fancy like this, this hint is not for you.


SOFTWARE:

Required:	Ghostscript
			AFPL, GNU, ESP, whatever; see BLFS book for details.

Optional:	a2ps
		psutils
			Again: See BLFS book for how to install these.

WHATISTHIS:

This is version 2 of the Printing Minority Report, a printing hint originally
written by Declan Moriarty. When I used it (the original hint) to get my
printer working, I cooked up a script to replace the usual-on-unix lpr
command. I submitted the script to Declan, and the next thing I knew was that
Declan handed over the hint to me.

Thanks to Declan for the (highly) original hint, and to Bill Maltby for
clearing up some issues on how to echo stuff to printers the GoodWay[TM].


STEP 1:

Check that you have printer support in your kernel, either compiled-in or as a
module. My config is as follows; you might not need the last two PARPORT_*
options enabled:

	CONFIG_PARPORT=y
	CONFIG_PARPORT_PC=y
	CONFIG_PARPORT_PC_CML1=y
	CONFIG_PARPORT_SERIAL=y
	CONFIG_PRINTER=y


STEP 2:

Check if your printer is working and connected:

	echo -en "blah\f\r" > /dev/lp0

(substitute lp0 with the port your printer is connected to)

If your printer spits out a piece of paper with the word `blah' on it,
good. If it doesn't, worry.


STEP 3:

Install your favourite version of ghostscript.


STEP 4:

Type gs -h at a prompt and select your printer from the pageful of drivers
that it gives up. If your driver is not shown, go back to step 3 and install
another version of ghostscript. AFPL and ESP ghostscript differ in what
printers are supported. (Hint: some kind of package management comes in handy
here.)

If you don't know what driver to select to get your printer working, go to

	http://www.linuxprinting.org/

and search their database for your printer. You might be told that you need
some additional software; HPIJS, pnm2ppa, or others. If you do need some extra
software, you're on your own. Here we only deal with ghostscript-supported
printers. (But read on, the hint might still be of use for you.)


STEP 5:

Test your setup. Get yourself a ps file (pdf will do, too), and run

	gs -q -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sDEVICE=<your-printer-driver> \
	-sOutputFile=/tmp/testit <your-file>

You'll find some ps files in the ghostscript examples directory; with me this
is /usr/share/ghostscript/8.00/examples/. This command should give you a
(probably rather large) binary file /tmp/testit; if you're lucky (I was),
running

	file /tmp/testit

will identify it as printer data. It may also tell you that the paper size does
not fit what you have in your printer; if this is the case, adding
-sPAPERSIZE=<your-papersize> to the gs command above will help. The other
options above mean:

	-q	tells gs not to display anything & saves it looking for X.
   -dBATCH	tells gs to quit after processing - always a good idea.
 -dNOPAUSE	gs will not wait for a key-press after each page.
   -dSAFER	stops gs from  deleting or zapping anything.
 -sDEVICE=	your printer driver. Be exact and case sensitive. gs is
		stupid. Use the spelling on the info at 'gs -h'.
-sOutputFile=	write to this output file (congratulations for guessing!)

If everything looks OK, you can

	cat /tmp/testit > /dev/lp0

(again, replace lp0 with the port your printer is connected to). This should
get <your-file> out to <your-printer>.

Both the commands above might give you some trouble with permissions if you do
them as an ordinary user. If the gs one does, execute

	chmod 4777 /tmp 

and kick yourself for running a machine unusable for ordinary users. If the
cat command bails out with some 'Cannot write to /dev/lp0' blah, you can
either decide that only root should be allowed to access your printer, or you
can be a little lax on some security issues and do a

	chmod a+rw /dev/lp0

If you want to use the lpr script below for printing, you should do the
latter.


STEP 6 (optional):

If you got here, you have your printer working. You can leave it at this; what
you did in step 5 was printing after all. If you want to be slightly more
fancy, the script below will provide you with an lpr command, to be used
either by calling

	lpr <some-file>

or by having lpr as (the last) part of a pipe. This should let you use most of
your favorite application's `Print' buttons/commands directly.

Another advantage of the script below is that it does not make use of
temporary files, thus avoiding a) cluttering /tmp with all kinda crap, and b)
some security hazards. On the other hand, if you want ordinary users to print,
you have to give them access to /dev/lp0 (or whatever port your printer is
connected to), see above.

Here we have the script; as you can see, there's some adjusting to do for
you. I have yet to encounter applications that won't print with this script;
if you do, please notify me.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
cat > /usr/bin/lpr << "EOF"
#!/bin/bash

####################  Adjust to your needs.
DEVICE=ljet4
LP=lp0
PAPER=a4
####################  End Adjust

# Prints file to printer $DEVICE connected at /dev/$LP, 
# using paper size $PAPER.
# Usage: lpr <ps or pdf file> ( or cat <ps or pdf file> | lpr )

# Uli Fahrenberg, early 2003. This file is in the public domain.

if [ -e /tmp/.lp-lock ] ; then
	echo "Error: printer is locked  (/tmp/.lp-lock exists)"
	exit 1
fi

FILE=$1
if ! [ X$FILE = X ] ; then ### We have a filename as an argument.
	if ! [ -r $FILE ] ; then
		echo "Error: Cannot read file $FILE"
		exit 1
	fi

	FTYPE=$(file -bL $FILE | awk '{print $1}')
	if ! [ $FTYPE = 'PDF' ] && ! [ $FTYPE = 'PostScript' ] ; then
		echo "Error: $FILE should be a PS or PDF file."
		exit 1
	fi

	### Comment this out if you want lpr to be quiet:
	echo -n "Printing $FILE... "

	(touch /tmp/.lp-lock;\
	gs -q -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sDEVICE=$DEVICE \
	    -sPAPERSIZE=$PAPER -sOutputFile=- $FILE \
	> /dev/$LP ; \
	rm /tmp/.lp-lock) &

	### Without the sleep, some apps delete $FILE
	###    faster than gs can read it:
	sleep 1
	echo "Done."

else ### We are part of a pipe.
	DATA="$(</dev/stdin)"
	(touch /tmp/.lp-lock;\
	echo "$DATA" \
	| gs -q -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sDEVICE=$DEVICE \
	    -sPAPERSIZE=$PAPER -sOutputFile=- - \
	> /dev/$LP;\
        rm /tmp/.lp-lock)&
fi
EOF
chmod 755 /usr/bin/lpr
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


STEP 7 (even more optional):

So now you can print postscript and pdf files on your printer. If you want to
print other kinds of files (plain text files, say, e.g. LFS hints...), you
might find the a2ps (AnyToPS) package handy. Also, for manipulating postscript
files, the psutils package is a good thing to have installed. Both packages
are covered in the BLFS book.


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