[blfs-book] r9322 - in trunk/BOOK: . introduction/welcome postlfs/filesystems

bdubbs at linuxfromscratch.org bdubbs at linuxfromscratch.org
Wed Feb 8 15:57:57 PST 2012


Author: bdubbs
Date: 2012-02-08 16:57:52 -0700 (Wed, 08 Feb 2012)
New Revision: 9322

Added:
   trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/aboutraid.xml
   trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/mdadm.xml
Modified:
   trunk/BOOK/general.ent
   trunk/BOOK/introduction/welcome/changelog.xml
   trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/filesystems.xml
Log:
Added mdadm
Added About RAID


Modified: trunk/BOOK/general.ent
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/general.ent	2012-02-08 19:46:32 UTC (rev 9321)
+++ trunk/BOOK/general.ent	2012-02-08 23:57:52 UTC (rev 9322)
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
 <!-- <!ENTITY lfs-root             "http://www.&lfs-domainname;/lfs/view/&lfs-version;"> -->
 <!ENTITY lfs-root             "../../../../lfs/view/&lfs-version;">
 <!ENTITY lfs-dev              "../../../../lfs/view/development">
+<!ENTITY kernel               "http://www.kernel.org/pub/">
 <!ENTITY gnu-alpha-ftp        "ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/">
 <!ENTITY gnu-alpha-http       "http://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/">
 <!ENTITY sourceforge-repo     "http://downloads.sourceforge.net">
@@ -140,6 +141,7 @@
 <!-- Chapter 5 -->
 <!ENTITY lvm2-version                 "2.02.67"><!-- version from ftp://sources.redhat.com/pub/lvm2/WHATS_NEW_DM -->
 <!ENTITY jfsutils-version             "1.1.15">
+<!ENTITY mdadm-version                "3.2.3">
 <!ENTITY reiser-version               "3.6.21">
 <!ENTITY xfsprogs-version             "3.1.7">
 
@@ -160,11 +162,6 @@
 <!-- Chapter 7a Virtualization -->
 <!ENTITY qemu-kvm-version             "1.0">
 
-
-<!-- Obsolete
-<!ENTITY ash-version                  "0.4.0">
--->
-
 <!-- Part III -->
 <!-- Chapter 8 -->
 <!ENTITY pcre-version                 "8.12">

Modified: trunk/BOOK/introduction/welcome/changelog.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/introduction/welcome/changelog.xml	2012-02-08 19:46:32 UTC (rev 9321)
+++ trunk/BOOK/introduction/welcome/changelog.xml	2012-02-08 23:57:52 UTC (rev 9322)
@@ -45,6 +45,12 @@
       <para>February 8th, 2012</para>
       <itemizedlist>
         <listitem>
+          <para>[bdubbs] - add mdadm-3.2.2.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>[bdubbs] - add section About RAID.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
           <para>[ken] - add librest-0.7.12 from Wayne.</para>
         </listitem>
         <listitem>

Copied: trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/aboutraid.xml (from rev 9300, trunk/BOOK/introduction/important/pkgmgt.xml)
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/aboutraid.xml	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/aboutraid.xml	2012-02-08 23:57:52 UTC (rev 9322)
@@ -0,0 +1,180 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
+<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
+   "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
+  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
+  %general-entities;
+]>
+
+<sect1 id="raid">
+  <?dbhtml filename="raid.html"?>
+
+  <sect1info>
+    <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
+    <date>$Date$</date>
+  </sect1info>
+
+  <title>About RAID</title>
+
+  <para>The storage technology known as RAID (Redundant Array of 
+  Independent Disks) combines multiple physical disks into a logical
+  unit.  The drives can generally be combined to provide data
+  redundancy or to extend the size of logical units beyond the
+  capability of the physical disks or both.  The technology
+  also allows for providing hardware maintenance without powering
+  down the system.</para>
+
+  <para>The types of RAID organization are descrbed in the <ulink
+  url="https://raid.wiki.kernel.org/articles/i/n/t/Introduction.html#The_RAID_levels">
+  RAID Wiki</ulink>.</para>
+
+  <para>Note that while RAID provides protection against disk 
+  failures, it is not a substitute for backups.  A file deleted
+  is still deleted on all the disks of a RAID array.  Modern backups
+  are generally done via <xref linkend='rsync'/>.</para>
+
+  <para>There are three major types of RAID implementation: 
+  Hardware RAID, BIOS-based RAID, and Software RAID.</para>
+
+  <sect2 id="hwraid">
+    <title>Hardware RAID</title>
+    <para>Hardware based RAID provides capability through proprietary 
+    hardware and data layouts.  The control and configuration is generally
+    done via firmware in conjunction with executable programs made
+    available by the device manufacturer.  The capabilities are
+    generally supplied via a PCI card, although there are some 
+    instances of RAID components integrated in to the motherboard.
+    Hardware RAID may also be available ina sthand-alone enclosure.</para>
+
+    <para>One advantage of hardware based RAID is that the drives
+    are offered to the operating system as a logical drive and no
+    operating system dependent configuration is needed.</para>
+
+    <para>Disadvantages include difficulties in transferring drives
+    from one system to another, updating firmware, or replacing
+    failed RAID hardware.</para>
+
+  </sect2>
+
+  <sect2 id="biosraid">
+    <title>BIOS-based RAID</title>
+
+    <para>Some computers offter a hardware-like RAID implementation in the
+    system BIOS.  Sometime this is referred to as 'fake' RAID as the
+    capabilites are generally incorporated into firmware without any hardware
+    acceleration.</para>
+
+    <para>The advantages and disadvantages of BIOS-based RAID are generally
+    the same as hardware RAID with the additional disadvantage that there
+    is no hardware acceleration.</para>
+
+    <para>In some cases, BIOS-based RAID firmware is enabled by default (e.g.
+    some DELL systems).  If software RAID is desired, this option must be
+    explicitly disabled in the BIOS.</para>
+
+  </sect2>
+
+  <sect2 id="swraid">
+  <title>Software RAID</title>
+    <para>Software based RAID is the most flexible form of RAID.  It is 
+    easy to install and update and provides full capability on all or
+    part of any drives available to the system.  In BLFS, the RAID software 
+    is found in <xref linkend='mdadm'/>.</para>
+
+    <para>Configuring a RAID device is straight forward using
+    <application>mdadm</application>.  Generally devices are created in the
+    <filename class='directory'>/dev</filename> directory as
+    <filename>/dev/mdx</filename> where <emphasis>x</emphasis> is an integer.
+    </para>
+
+    <para>The first step in creating a RAID array is to use partitioning software
+    such as <userinput>fdisk</userinput> or <xref linkend='parted'/> to define the 
+    partitions needed for the array.  Usually, there will be one partition on
+    each drive participating in the RAID array, but that is not strictly necessary.
+    For this example, there will be four disk drives:
+    <filename>/dev/sda</filename>,
+    <filename>/dev/sdb</filename>,
+    <filename>/dev/sdc</filename>, and
+    <filename>/dev/sdd</filename>.  They will be partitioned as follows:</para>
+
+<screen><literal>Partition Size     Type                Use
+sda1:     100 MB   fd Linux raid auto  /boot    (RAID 1) /dev/md0
+sda2:      10 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /        (RAID 1) /dev/md1
+sda3:       2 GB   83 Linux swap       swap
+sda4      300 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /home    (RAID 5) /dev/md2
+
+sdb1:     100 MB   fd Linux raid auto  /boot    (RAID 1) /dev/md0
+sdb2:      10 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /        (RAID 1) /dev/md1
+sdb3:       2 GB   83 Linux swap       swap
+sdb4      300 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /home    (RAID 5) /dev/md2
+
+sdc1:      12 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /usr/src (RAID 0) /dev/md3
+sdc2:     300 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /home    (RAID 5) /dev/md2
+
+sdd1:      12 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /usr/src (RAID 0) /dev/md3
+sdd2:     300 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /home    (RAID 5) /dev/md2 </literal></screen>
+
+    <para>Is this arrangement, we are creating a separate boot partition as the
+    first small RAID array and a root filesystem as the secong RAID array,
+    both mirrored.  The third partition is a large (about 1TB) array for the
+    <filename class='directory'>/home</filename> directory.  This provides
+    an ability to stripe data across multiple devices, improving speed for 
+    botih reading and writing large files.  Finally, we create a fourth array
+    that concatenates two partitions into a larger device.</para>
+
+    <note><para>All <application>mdadm</application> commands must be run
+    as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user.</para></note>
+
+    <para>To create these RAID arrays the commands are:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>/sbin/mdadm -Cv /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1
+/sbin/mdadm -Cv /dev/md1 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2
+/sbin/mdadm -Cv /dev/md3 --level=0 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1
+/sbin/mdadm -Cv /dev/md2 --level=5 --raid-devices=4 \
+        /dev/sda4 /dev/sdb4 /dev/sdc2 /dev/sdd2 </userinput></screen>
+
+    <para>The devices created can be examined by device.  For example,
+    to see the details of <filename>/dev/md1</filename>, use 
+    <userinput>/sbin/mdadm --detail /dev/md1</userinput>:  </para>
+
+<screen><literal>        Version : 1.2
+  Creation Time : Tue Feb  7 17:08:45 2012
+     Raid Level : raid1
+     Array Size : 10484664 (10.00 GiB 10.74 GB)
+  Used Dev Size : 10484664 (10.00 GiB 10.74 GB)
+   Raid Devices : 2
+  Total Devices : 2
+    Persistence : Superblock is persistent
+
+    Update Time : Tue Feb  7 23:11:53 2012
+          State : clean
+ Active Devices : 2
+Working Devices : 2
+ Failed Devices : 0
+  Spare Devices : 0
+
+           Name : core2-blfs:0  (local to host core2-blfs)
+           UUID : fcb944a4:9054aeb2:d987d8fe:a89121f8
+         Events : 17
+
+    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
+       0       8        1        0      active sync   /dev/sda1
+       1       8       17        1      active sync   /dev/sdb1</literal></screen>
+
+   <para>From this point, the partitions can be formated with the filesystem of
+   choice (e.g. ext3, ext4, <xref linkend='xfs'/>, <xref linkend='reiserfs'/>,
+   etc).  The formatted partitions can then be mounted.  The
+   <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> ifile can use the devices created for mounting at
+   boot time and the linux command line in
+   <filename>/boot/grub/grub.conf</filename> can specify
+   <option>root=/dev/md1</option>.</para>
+
+   <note><para>The swap devices should be specified in the <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
+   file as normal.  The kernel normally stripes swap data accross multiple swap 
+   files and should not be made part of a RAID array.</para></note>
+
+   <para>For further options and management details of RAID devices, refer to
+   <userinput>man mdadm</userinput>.</para>
+
+  </sect2>
+
+</sect1>

Modified: trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/filesystems.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/filesystems.xml	2012-02-08 19:46:32 UTC (rev 9321)
+++ trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/filesystems.xml	2012-02-08 23:57:52 UTC (rev 9322)
@@ -25,6 +25,8 @@
   <!-- <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="ext3.xml"/> -->
   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="lvm2.xml"/>
   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="jfs.xml"/>
+  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="mdadm.xml"/>
+  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="aboutraid.xml"/>
   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="reiser.xml"/>
   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="xfs.xml"/>
 

Added: trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/mdadm.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/mdadm.xml	                        (rev 0)
+++ trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/mdadm.xml	2012-02-08 23:57:52 UTC (rev 9322)
@@ -0,0 +1,148 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
+<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
+   "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
+  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
+  %general-entities;
+
+  <!ENTITY mdadm-download-http "&kernel;/linux/utils/raid/mdadm/mdadm-&mdadm-version;.tar.xz">
+  <!ENTITY mdadm-download-ftp " ">
+  <!ENTITY mdadm-md5sum        "9203afc5c891a39c5a8998b385cb070b">
+  <!ENTITY mdadm-size          "352 KB">
+  <!ENTITY mdadm-buildsize     "17 MB">
+  <!ENTITY mdadm-time          "0.5 SBU">
+]>
+
+<sect1 id="mdadm" xreflabel="mdadm-&mdadm-version;">
+  <?dbhtml filename="mdadm.html"?>
+
+  <sect1info>
+    <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
+    <date>$Date$</date>
+  </sect1info>
+
+  <title>mdadm-&mdadm-version;</title>
+
+  <indexterm zone="mdadm">
+    <primary sortas="a-mdadm">mdadm</primary>
+  </indexterm>
+
+  <sect2 role="package">
+    <title>Introduction to mdadm</title>
+
+    <para>The <application>mdadm</application> package contains administration
+    tools for sorfware RAID.</para>
+
+    &lfs70_checked;
+
+    <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Package Information</bridgehead>
+    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&mdadm-download-http;"/></para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&mdadm-download-ftp;"/></para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Download MD5 sum: &mdadm-md5sum;</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Download size: &mdadm-size;</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Estimated disk space required: &mdadm-buildsize;</para>
+      </listitem>
+      <listitem>
+        <para>Estimated build time: &mdadm-time;</para>
+      </listitem>
+    </itemizedlist>
+
+    <para condition="html" role="usernotes">User Notes:
+    <ulink url="&blfs-wiki;/xfs"/></para>
+
+  </sect2>
+
+  <sect2 role="kernel" id='mdadm-kernel'>
+    <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
+
+    <para>Enable the following options in the kernel configuration
+    and recompile the kernel, if necessary.  Only the RAID types desired
+    are required.  </para>
+
+<screen><literal>File Systems:
+  Device Drivers: 
+    Multiple devices driver support (RAID and LVM): Y
+      RAID support: Y or M
+        Autodetect RAID arrays during kernel boot: Y
+        Linear (append) mode: Y or M
+        RAID-0 (striping) mode : Y or M
+        RAID-1 (mirroring) mode : Y or M
+        RAID-10 (mirrored striping) mode: Y or M
+        RAID-4/RAID-5/RAID-6 mode : Y or M</literal></screen>
+
+    <indexterm zone="mdadm mdadm-kernel">
+      <primary sortas="d-mdadm">mdadm</primary>
+    </indexterm>
+
+  </sect2>
+
+  <sect2 role="installation">
+    <title>Installation of mdadm</title>
+
+    <para>Install <application>mdadm</application> by running the following
+    commands:</para>
+
+<screen><userinput>make everything</userinput></screen>
+
+<!--    <para>This package does not come with a test suite.</para> -->
+
+    <para>Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
+
+<screen role="root"><userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
+
+  </sect2>
+
+  <sect2 role="content">
+    <title>Contents</title>
+
+    <segmentedlist>
+      <segtitle>Installed Programs</segtitle>
+      <segtitle>Installed Libraries</segtitle>
+      <segtitle>Installed Directory</segtitle>
+
+      <seglistitem>
+        <seg>mdadm and mdmon</seg>
+        <seg>None</seg>
+        <seg>None</seg>
+      </seglistitem>
+    </segmentedlist>
+
+    <variablelist>
+      <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
+      <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
+      <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
+
+      <varlistentry id="mdadm-prog">
+        <term><command>mdadm</command></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>manages MD devices aka Linux Software RAID.</para>
+          <indexterm zone="mdadm mdadm-prog">
+            <primary sortas="b-mdadm-prog">mdadm</primary>
+          </indexterm>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+      <varlistentry id="mdmon">
+        <term><command>mdmon</command></term>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>monitors MD external metadata arrays.</para>
+          <indexterm zone="mdadm mdmon">
+            <primary sortas="b-mdmon">mdmon</primary>
+          </indexterm>
+        </listitem>
+      </varlistentry>
+
+    </variablelist>
+
+  </sect2>
+
+</sect1>


Property changes on: trunk/BOOK/postlfs/filesystems/mdadm.xml
___________________________________________________________________
Added: svn:keywords
   + LastChangedBy Date




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