r5765 - in trunk/BOOK: introduction/welcome x/installing

dnicholson at linuxfromscratch.org dnicholson at linuxfromscratch.org
Tue Mar 28 06:59:37 PST 2006

Author: dnicholson
Date: 2006-03-28 07:59:36 -0700 (Tue, 28 Mar 2006)
New Revision: 5765

Reworking of font section in X Window System Components

Modified: trunk/BOOK/introduction/welcome/changelog.xml
--- trunk/BOOK/introduction/welcome/changelog.xml	2006-03-28 14:55:44 UTC (rev 5764)
+++ trunk/BOOK/introduction/welcome/changelog.xml	2006-03-28 14:59:36 UTC (rev 5765)
@@ -45,6 +45,11 @@
       <para>March 28th, 2006</para>
+          <para>[dnicholson] - Reworked the fonts section of X Window System
+          Components.  Added detailed description of both font services and
+          more links to available fonts.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
           <para>[dnicholson] - Added commands to make only TrueType fonts
           available to Fontconfig in Xorg-6.9.0, Xorg-7.0.0 and XFree86-4.5.0.
           Fixed name of luit patch in Xorg-6.9.0.</para>

Modified: trunk/BOOK/x/installing/x-setup.xml
--- trunk/BOOK/x/installing/x-setup.xml	2006-03-28 14:55:44 UTC (rev 5764)
+++ trunk/BOOK/x/installing/x-setup.xml	2006-03-28 14:59:36 UTC (rev 5765)
@@ -59,44 +59,17 @@
 <!-- ================================================== -->
   <sect2 id='fonts'>
-    <title>Adding TrueType Fonts to X</title>
+    <title>Setting up Fonts</title>
-    <para><application>TrueType</application> font support is built into
-    <application>X</application>. The following items need to be
-    completed to make the fonts available. Each item is described in
-    detail after the list.</para>
+    <para>There are two font systems in the
+    <application>X Window System</application>.  The first is the
+    core X font protocol, and the second is Xft.  Toolkits that use the core
+    X font protocol include Xt, Xaw, Motif clones and GTK+-1.2.  Toolkits that
+    use Xft include GTK+-2 and Qt and use <application>Fontconfig</application>
+    for control.  Both font systems should be configured for proper font
+    coverage in the <application>X Window System</application>.</para>
     <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts">
-      <primary sortas="g-truetype">TrueType</primary>
-    </indexterm>
-    <itemizedlist>
-      <listitem>
-        <para>Establish a directory for the fonts and move any
-        <application>TrueType</application> fonts you want into that
-        directory. Ensure that any fonts you install are world readable.
-        Incorrect permissions on fonts have been known to cause problems
-        with some <application>X</application> applications.</para>
-      </listitem>
-      <listitem>
-        <para>Download the fonts.</para>
-      </listitem>
-      <listitem>
-        <para>Create the <filename>fonts.scale</filename> and
-        <filename>fonts.dir</filename> files in the
-        <application>TrueType</application> font directory.</para>
-      </listitem>
-      <listitem>
-        <para>Ensure the <application>TrueType</application> module is
-        loaded in the <filename>XF86Config</filename> or
-        <filename>xorg.conf</filename>.</para>
-      </listitem>
-      <listitem>
-        <para>Update the font cache files</para>
-      </listitem>
-    </itemizedlist>
-    <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts">
       <primary sortas="e-etc-X11-xorg-conf">/etc/X11/xorg.conf</primary>
@@ -105,134 +78,224 @@
-      <title>Establish a TrueType Font Directory</title>
+      <title>Core X Font Protocol</title>
-      <para>The build of <application>X</application> as given above
-      automatically creates a <application>TrueType</application> font
-      directory: <filename
-      class="directory">/usr/share/fonts/TTF</filename>. This
-      directory already has some <application>TrueType</application>
-      fonts and is set up correctly. If this directory is satisfactory,
-      copy any other <application>TrueType</application> fonts you want
-      into that directory. If not, create a new directory, preferably
-      in the <filename
-      class="directory">/usr/share/fonts/</filename> directory
-      and put your <application>TrueType</application> fonts there.</para>
-    </sect3>
-    <sect3>
-      <title>Download the Fonts</title>
-      <para>There are two known high quality free font resources:
-      <ulink url="ftp://ftp.gnu.org/savannah/files/freefont/"/> and
-      <ulink url="http://corefonts.sourceforge.net/"/>. Copy the fonts
-      (files with the <filename>.ttf</filename> suffix) to the directory
-      you've just created.</para>
-    </sect3>
-    <sect3 id="fonts-scale-dir">
-      <title>Create 'fonts.scale' and 'fonts.dir'</title>
-      <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts-scale-dir">
-        <primary sortas="g-fonts.scale">fonts.scale</primary>
+      <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts">
+        <primary sortas="g-core-x-font">Core X Font Protocol</primary>
-      <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts-scale-dir">
-        <primary sortas="g-fonts.dir">fonts.dir</primary>
-      </indexterm>
+      <para>The core X font protocol finds fonts from the server configuration
+      file (<filename>xorg.conf</filename> or <filename>XF86Config</filename>). 
+      If no font paths exist in the configurations file, the server will fall
+      back to an internal hard-coded path.  Assuming the prefix for your
+      <application>X</application> installation is
+      <filename class="directory">/usr/X11R6</filename>, the core fonts will
+      reside in subdirectories of <filename
+      class="directory">/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts</filename>.  For each
+      directory in the path, the server reads three files:</para>
-      <para>Now change to the directory where you have your
-      <application>TrueType</application> fonts and run:</para>
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><filename>fonts.dir</filename> - maps font files to font
+          names; updated with <command>mkfontdir</command></para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><filename>fonts.alias</filename> - defines aliases (such as
+          "9x18") for existing fonts</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><filename>fonts.scale</filename> - lists scalable fonts;
+          updated with <command>mkfontscale</command></para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
-<screen role="root"><userinput>mkfontscale &&
+      <para>The core X fonts protocol uses names such as
+      <systemitem>-misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-120-75-75-c-80-iso8859-1</systemitem>. 
+      These fonts are rendered by the <application>X</application> server
+      without antialiasing.  The server itself uses the "cursor" font for
+      painting the mouse cursor, and the protocol specification requires the
+      font "fixed" to be available.</para>
-      <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts-scale-dir">
-        <primary sortas="b-mkfontscale">mkfontscale</primary>
-      </indexterm>
+      <para>Scalable fonts, such as Type1 and TrueType, are read from
+      <filename>fonts.scale</filename> files by the server.  The core X font
+      system uses the "freetype" module for non-antialiased rendering of these
+      fonts.  Ensure that the "freetype" module is loaded in the
+      <filename>XF86config</filename> or <filename>xorg.conf</filename>
+      file by adding it to the "Module" section:</para>
-      <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts-scale-dir">
-        <primary sortas="b-mkfontdir">mkfontdir</primary>
-      </indexterm>
-    </sect3>
-    <sect3>
-      <title>Ensure TrueType is Loaded in 'XF86Config' or 'xorg.conf'</title>
-      <para>The "Module" section should look like:</para>
 <screen><literal>Section "Module"
     Load  "freetype"
+      <para>The character set used is part of the font name, e.g. "-iso8859-1". 
+      It is important that applications which support a non-English interface
+      specify the character set correctly so that the proper glyphs are used. 
+      This can be controlled through the <application>X</application>
+      resources, which will be described later.</para>
+      <para>In some cases, applications rely upon the fonts named "fixed" or
+      something like "9x18".  In these cases, it is important that the
+      <filename>fonts.alias</filename> file specifies the correct character
+      set.  Users of ISO-8859-<replaceable>X</replaceable> encodings where
+      <replaceable>X</replaceable> != 1 should modify the
+      <filename>/usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</filename> file by
+      replacing the "iso8859-1" string with the proper encoding name.  This is
+      accomplished by running the following command as the <systemitem
+      class="username">root</systemitem> user, substituting the proper value
+      for <replaceable>[X]</replaceable>:</para>
+<screen role="root"><userinput>sed -i 's,iso8859-1\( \|$\),iso8859-<replaceable>[X]</replaceable>\1,g' \
+    /usr/share/fonts/{75dpi,100dpi,misc}/fonts.alias</userinput></screen>
+      <para>Users of Cyrillic fonts have properly defined aliases in
+      <filename>/usr/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic/fonts.alias</filename>.  However,
+      this file will not be used unless the <filename
+      class="directory">/usr/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic</filename> directory is
+      first in the font search path.  Otherwise, the
+      <filename>/usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</filename> file will be
+      used.</para>
-      <title>Update the Font Cache Files</title>
+      <title>Xft Font Protocol</title>
-      <para>If you decided not to install X windows fonts into
-      <filename class='directory'>/usr/share/fonts</filename>, then
-      ensure you have the following directory entries in
-      <filename>/etc/fonts/local.conf</filename>, inside the <fontconfig>
-      tags. Create <filename>/etc/fonts/local.conf</filename> using the
-      following commands:</para>
       <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts">
-        <primary sortas="e-etc-fonts-local.conf">/etc/fonts/local.conf</primary>
+        <primary sortas="g-truetype">TrueType Fonts</primary>
-<screen role="root"><userinput>cat > /etc/fonts/local.conf << "EOF"
-<literal><?xml version="1.0"?>
-<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM "fonts.dtd">
-<!-- /etc/fonts/local.conf file for local customizations -->
+      <para>Xft provides antialiased font rendering through
+      <application>Freetype</application>, and fonts are controlled from the
+      client side using <application>Fontconfig</application>.  The default
+      search path is <filename class="directory">/usr/share/fonts</filename>
+      and <filename class="directory">~/.fonts</filename>. 
+      When installing <application>X</application>, symlinks were created from
+      the <filename class="directory">OTF</filename> and <filename
+      class="directory">TTF</filename> <application>X</application> font
+      directories to <filename
+      class="directory">/usr/share/fonts/X11-{OTF,TTF}</filename>.  This
+      prevents <application>Fontconfig</application> from using the poorly
+      rendered Type1 fonts or the non-scalable bitmapped fonts.</para>
+      <para><application>Fontconfig</application> searches directories in its
+      path recursively and maintains a cache of the font characteristics in
+      <filename>fonts.cache-1</filename> files in each directory.  If the cache
+      appears to be out of date, it is ignored, and information is (slowly)
+      fetched from the fonts themselves.  This cache
+      can be regenerated using the <command>fc-cache</command> command at any
+      time.</para>
+      <para><application>Fontconfig</application> uses names such as
+      "Monospace 12" to define fonts.  Applications generally use generic font
+      names such as "Monospace", "Sans" and "Serif". 
+      <application>Fontconfig</application> resolves these names to a font that
+      has all characters that cover the orthography of the language indicated
+      by the locale settings.  Knowledge of these font names is included in
+      <filename>/etc/fonts/fonts.conf</filename>.</para>
+      <para>Standard scalable fonts that come with <application>X</application>
+      provide very poor Unicode coverage.  You may notice in applications that
+      use <application>Xft</application> that some characters appear as a box
+      with four binary digits inside.  In this case, a font set with the
+      available glyphs has not been found.  Other times, applications that
+      don't use other font families by default and don't accept substitutions
+      from <application>Fontconfig</application> will display blank lines when
+      the default font doesn't cover the orthography of the user's language. 
+      This happens, e.g., with <application>Fluxbox</application> in the
+      ru_RU.KOI8-R locale.</para>
-<screen><userinput><command>sed -i -e '/^<\/fontconfig>/i\
-<dir>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1</dir>' /etc/fonts/local.conf</command></userinput></screen>
- -->
+      <para>In order to provide greater Unicode coverage, it is recommended
+      that you install these fonts:</para>
-      <para>The <command>fc-cache</command> program will automatically
-      search the above directories and all subdirectories for needed
-      fonts.</para>
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><ulink url="http://dejavu.sourceforge.net/">DejaVu fonts</ulink>
+          - These fonts are replacements for the Bitstream Vera fonts and
+          provide Latin-based scripts with accents and Cyrillic glyphs.
+          <application>Fontconfig</application> does not know about the DejaVu
+          fonts by default, so <filename>/etc/fonts/fonts.conf</filename> will
+          have to be edited for it to be recognized by the generic names such
+          as "Sans".  This will be described below.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><ulink
+          url="http://download.savannah.nongnu.org/releases/freefont/">FreeFont</ulink>
+          - This set of fonts covers nearly every non-CJK character, but is not
+          visually pleasing.  <application>Fontconfig</application> will use it
+          as a last resort to substitute generic font family names.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><ulink
+          url="http://corefonts.sourceforge.net/">Microsoft Core fonts</ulink>
+          - These fonts provide slightly worse Unicode coverage than FreeFont,
+          but are better hinted.  Be sure to read the license before using
+          them.  <application>Fontconfig</application> knows about them by
+          default.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><ulink
+          url="http://cle.linux.org.tw/fonts/FireFly">Firefly New Sung font</ulink>
+          - This font provides Chinese coverage.  However,
+          <application>Fontconfig</application>does not know about this font
+          by default.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><ulink
+          url="http://cle.linux.org.tw/fonts/Arphic">Arphic fonts</ulink> -
+          A similar set of Chinese fonts to the Firefly New Sung font.
+          <application>Fontconfig</application> knows about these fonts by
+          default and will substitute them for generic family names.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><ulink
+          url="http://sourceforge.jp/projects/efont/">Kochi fonts</ulink> -
+          These provide Japanese characters, and
+          <application>Fontconfig</application> knows about these fonts by
+          default.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem>
+          <para><ulink
+          url="http://kldp.net/projects/baekmuk/">Baekmuk fonts</ulink>
+          - These fonts provide Korean coverage, and
+          <application>Fontconfig</application> knows about these fonts by
+          default.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
-      <para>Finally, to update all the font cache files, run</para>
+      <para>The list above will not provide complete Unicode coverage.  For
+      more information, please visit the <ulink
+      url="http://unifont.org/fontguide/">Unicode Font Guide</ulink>.</para>
-<screen role="root"><userinput>fc-cache</userinput></screen>
+      <para>As an example, consider the installation of the DejaVu fonts.  From
+      the unpacked source directory, run the following commands as the
+      <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
-      <indexterm zone="x-setup fonts">
-        <primary sortas="b-fc-cache">fc-cache</primary>
-      </indexterm>
+<screen role="root"><userinput>install -v -d -m755 /usr/share/fonts/dejavu &&
+install -v -m644 *.ttf /usr/share/fonts/dejavu &&
+fc-cache -v /usr/share/fonts/dejavu</userinput></screen>
-      <para><application>X</application> will now be able to use
-      <application>TrueType</application> fonts when it is restarted.
-      You can check to see if the new fonts are available with the
-      <command>xlsfonts</command>  or <command>xfontsel</command>
-      program.</para>
+      <para>Earlier it was mentioned that <filename>/etc/fonts/fonts.conf</filename>
+      could be modified to use DejaVu using the default family names.  Since
+      DejaVu is a replacement for Bitstream Vera fonts, we can substitute it
+      for that family.  Visually inspect the <filename>fonts.conf</filename> to
+      see how fonts are grouped together under the generic family names and a
+      preference list is created.  To replace Bitstream Vera with DejaVu, as the
+      <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
-      <note>
-        <para>You should rerun <command>mkfontscale</command> and
-        <command>mkfontdir</command> any time you add or delete
-        <application>TrueType</application> fonts.
-        You should also rerun <command>fc-cache</command> each time
-        you add or remove any fonts.</para>
-      </note>
+<screen role="root"><userinput>sed -i 's/<family>Bitstream Vera/<family>DejaVu/' /etc/fonts/fonts.conf</userinput></screen>
+<screen><userinput><command>sed -i -e '/^<\/fontconfig>/i\
+<dir>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1</dir>' /etc/fonts/local.conf</command></userinput></screen>
+ -->
+    <bridgehead renderas="sect3" condition="html" role="usernotes">User Notes:
+    <ulink url='&blfs-wiki;/XWindowSystemComponents'/></bridgehead>
 <!-- ================================================== -->
@@ -263,31 +326,6 @@
 <!-- ================================================== -->
-  <sect2>
-    <title>Setting up Fonts</title>
-    <para>Users using character sets other than ISO-8859-1 have to make
-    a few adjustments to their font settings in order to make sure that
-    fonts with the correct encoding are used for "fixed", "variable",
-    "10x20" and similar aliases. For ISO-8859-<replaceable>[X]</replaceable>
-    based locales, use the following command:</para>
-<screen role="root"><userinput>sed -i 's,iso8859-1\( \|$\),iso8859-<replaceable>[X]</replaceable>\1,g' \
-    /usr/share/fonts/{75dpi,100dpi,misc}/fonts.alias</userinput></screen>
-    <para>To use cyrillic fonts with <application>GTK1</application>,
-    <application>Tk</application>, <application>Xaw</application> and
-    <application>Motif</application>, put the following line into the top of the
-    "Files" section in <filename>XF86Config</filename> or
-    <filename>xorg.conf</filename>. This directory already contains the needed bitmap
-    fonts and their aliases:</para>
-<screen><literal>FontPath   "/usr/share/fonts/cyrillic/"</literal></screen>
-  </sect2>
-<!-- ================================================== -->
   <sect2 id='xdm'>
     <title>Setting up XDM</title>

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